The debate over the ability of fish to feel pain is quite intense within the scientific community and I’m going to do my best to summarize the slew of available research on both sides.  I have to be honest, going into this video I figured I’d read a couple articles and write up a script.  Two days later, I was still reading.  I like to keep my video posts as short and simple as possible.  But I also don’t want to skimp on the facts.  So get ready from some hardcore, scientific truth bombs. [tweet this]

This video post is the first in a series I’ll be doing on fish and other marine life.  Before we look into whether or not fish can feel pain, we must first understand pain itself.  This is a tall order- scientists are constantly learning more about the nature of pain and there are still a lot of unanswered questions.  But I’ll do my best to simplify this extremely complex topic.

The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as:

“An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage with the conditions that, one: pain is always subjective; and two: pain is sometimes reported in the absence of tissue damage; and three: the definition of pain should avoid tying pain to an external eliciting stimulus.”

These last points are of grave importance within the fish pain debate, so I’ll briefly elaborate.

One of the most critical concepts about pain is the distinction between nociception and pain. when you cut your finger, that stimulus activates your nociceptors, which are receptors of sensory neurons that respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to your spinal cord and brain.  Nociceptors are often incorrectly called pain receptors.  While the message they convey can be interpreted in the brain as pain, nociception itself can occur without pain.  Nociception is a purely neurological occurrence, but pain perception is largely psychological and emotional.

To illustrate the distinction, if you’re under anesthesia during surgery, your nocicpetors will still be firing and carrying signals to the dorsal horn of your spinal cord where a reflex response is triggered and the signal moves on to the brain to be interpreted.  However, as you’re unconscious while under anesthesia, you cannot interpret these signals as pain and thus do not experience pain.

Neuroscientist Patrick David Wall, the world’s leading expert on pain, clarifies that “activity induced in the nociceptor and nociceptive pathways by a noxious stimulus is not pain” as pain “is always a psychological state.”

Therein lies the rub with the fish debate.  In his article, The Neurobehavioral Nature of Fishes and the Question of Awareness and Pain, which has become the go-to resource for the “fish don’t feel pain camp,” Dr. James D. Rose argues that because fish lack a neocortex, a neuroanatomical structure that, in humans is associated with conscious awareness, they cannot feel pain.

He explains fishes’ response to and avoidance of noxious stimuli, such as electric shocks, are simply unconscious, reflexive responses.   Nociception goes way back on the evolutionary timeline, existing in some of the earliest animals possessing nervous systems.  Sea anemone, corals and jellyfish, for example, all possess nociception.

Rose compared fishes’ avoidance of noxious stimuli to the involuntary contorted facial reactions displayed by neocortically damaged humans who possessed no consciousness yet would grimace in a way we associate with pain when stimulated.

Rose argued that because fish lack the conscious awareness of their nociceptive cues due to their absence of a neocortex, they cannot feel pain.  This distinction between pain and nociception seems to take down any claim of fish pain perception predicated on their avoidance behavior and possession of nociceptors.

However, rose’s stance isn’t as foolproof as it may appear.  Dr. Stephanie Yue in her report Fish and Pain Perception, points out that one of the major flaws in rose’s argument is the fact that it hinges on the neocortex being “the sole means by which pain can be experienced, ”which “suggests that it is the seat of consciousness.”  She goes on to state:

“A cursory review of the neurobiology of consciousness shows both the complexity of the phenomenon of consciousness and that conscious phenomena, such as pain, are not restricted to any one location in the brain. … [T]he neocortex is unique to mammals.  Were the presence of a large, considerably developed neocortex the requirement for experiencing pain, as Rose suggests, his theory would eliminate birds, amphibians, other non-mammalian animals, and even some mammals from having the capacity of feeling pain, which is unfounded.”

In short, comparing a fish or any other different species to our own rather than attempting to understand their unique physiology is greatly flawed, especially when the neuroanatomical aspects of our own consciousness are still so unknown.  This kind of cross-species application is the main flaw of the animal testing model as well.  Check out this video post in my animal testing series to see how humans are often harmed and even killed by medications that made it through animal trials.

Now in reality, the brain of fish isn’t even quite as foreign from ours as Rose would have us think. As Yue points out:

“[R]esearchers have found many similarities in neuroanatomical structure between fish and land-based vertebrates, from gross regional structures to finer neuronal structures, and neurobiological evidence proposes that there is strong structural conservation throughout evolution.”

For the sake of time and to keep this as simple as possible, I’m not going to delve into the specific similarities in brain structure and function between fish and mammals.**   If you want to get into the scientific nitty-gritty, which I highly recommend, see the resources down below and the extra bit with the double asterisks pertaining to this point in particular.  So to my fellow nerds out there, enjoy.

Just as rose’s paper is the flagship of the “fish don’t feel pain” camp, the “fish do feel pain camp” was more or less born from a paper published by Lynne Sneddon, Victoria Braithwaite, and Michael Gentle in 2003.  It’s strange, really that it took that long to look into this matter.

In her book “Do Fish Feel Pain?,” Braithwaite, suggests that the delay was perhaps because “asking if fish feel pain challenges established ideas; it is akin to opening the proverbial can of worms—as we pose the question, a whole slew of unknowns arise.”  When preparing for their initial research paper, she says she and Gentle wondered, “Could this be right? was it really the case that at the end of the twentieth century we couldn’t answer a straightforward question about whether fish had the necessary gross anatomy to detect pain? fish are the largest vertebrate group. did we really know so little?”

Within their initial study, the three scientists injected bee venom or vinegar around the mouth of fish and recorded their reactions.  The fish had increased breathing rates, lost interest in food, and would rub the injection sites up against the glass of the tank.

I’d like to take a moment here to talk about this kind of animal testing.  While the scientific exploration of animals’ experience is fascinating and can help convince people that animals do feel and deserve protection, it’s never justifiable to harm, torture and kill animals in the name of intellectual progress.  Because they do not consent to participating in such studies as human trial participants can, the practice is not ethical.  I’ll circle back to this matter when I wrap up but I just wanted to make a note as I’ll be relaying results from such studies.

Immediately after publishing, Braithwaite and her colleagues were grabbed up by the media who all wanted to know whether this meant that fishing, or angling, was cruel: Did fish suffer from this “sport”?  Unfortunately, this study did not answer that question as it didn’t delve into the perception of pain, the level beyond nociception.  To do so, Braithwaite says they needed to incorporate complex behavior.  They chose a trout’s natural avoidance of new things, a behavior that requires a higher order cognitive process.

Again, fish were injected with vinegar, and the control group with saline, and a new object was introduced to their aquariums.  Those injected with saline showed the expected avoidance behavior while those injected with vinegar did not.

Braithwaite states, “to us these results showed that the vinegar injection was impairing the fishes’ attention, as expected if the fish experienced discomfort and pain associated with the vinegar treatment.”  To be sure, they repeated the experiment, only giving all the fish a dose of morphine along with their injections.  As predicted, when given pain relief, the fish injected with vinegar resumed their normal avoidance behavior

Braithwaite summarizes: “The fish must be cognitively aware and experiencing the negative experiences associated with pain.  Being cognitively aware of tissue damage is what we mean when we talk about feeling pain.”

A lesser-known Russian study published before Braithwaite and her colleagues found similar results and since the 2003 publication, a large number of subsequent studies have been conducted, finding more and more evidence of fishes’ pain perception.

While the question of nociception is separate from the question of pain, it can be further said that the question of pain may be separate from the question of suffering.  So do fish suffer?

This is again, where Rose would say absolutely not as they lack the neocortext and higher consciousness.  However, these kind of statements assume that fish have to suffer as we suffer and feel as we feel or not suffer or feel at all.  It’s undeniable that fish have differing physiology from us so it would be naïve to assume their cognitive and emotional abilities would be identical to ours.  However, just because fish may not express themselves in a way we readily comprehend, does not mean they don’t feel pain and suffer.

Regarding this further layer, Braithwaite points to a number of other studies that delved into the cooperative interaction of fish with other aquatic animals and evidence of monitoring and self-consciousness.  She states:

“Pulling the different threads together, fish really do appear to possess key traits associated with consciousness.  Their ability to form and use mental representations indicates fish have some degree of access consciousness,” [tweet this]

suggesting that:

“If we already accept that mammals and birds are sentient creatures that have the capacity to experience positive and negative emotions—pleasure or suffering, we should conclude that there is now sufficient evidence to put fish alongside birds and mammals.  Given all of this, I see no logical reason why we should not extend to fish the same welfare considerations that we currently extend to birds and mammals.”

She even goes so far as to compare the evidence for fish’s ability to perceive pain to that of neonate and preterm babies, concluding that there is far more evidence of fish experiencing pain than for human fetuses.  Still, sadly, Braithwaite does not take this to the full logical conclusion and still eats fish.

Something to make note of as well: Aside from the pain inflicted upon fish who are hooked and even gutted and descaled while still alive is the incredibly painful and slow process of dying from lack of water. Think about the process of drowning, how terrifying and painful it would be.  Just as we cannot live without air, fish cannot live without water.  And many fish that are caught are left to gasp on a bed of ice while they die a terrifying and painfully slow death.

The Humane Slaughter Act of the United States, which in and of itself is a joke, does not include any provisions for fish, poultry, rabbits or other animals outside of cattle, pigs and sheep.  There is no regulation on the treatment of fish.  And because it’s so easy to relegate them to a sub-animal status given how different they are from us in appearance and behavior, their deaths are absolutely brutal.

Now, as promised, to circle back to the issue of animal testing.  We may be tempted to say, “but if they didn’t conduct these studies, then there wouldn’t be proof that fish suffer so more fish would be suffering.”  sadly, the proof that fish suffer hasn’t put a dent in the slaughter of fish.  And the mentality of “the ends justify the means” is a dangerous road to go down.  On a global scale, the United Nations Food and Agricultural organization’s data,, estimates that we catch between 0.97-2.7 trillion wild fish every year. [UPDATED NOTE: during research for later videos, I found this number to be closer to 2.8 trillion. See here and here]

I think it’s prudent to bring forth the words of Jeremy Bentham in his text An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation published in 1789 in which he said:

“The question is not can they reason, nor can they talk, but can they suffer [emphasis added]?’ [tweet this]

Thanks for sticking with me through this research-intensive nugget.

The time it took to produce this video post clocks in at about 53+ hours.  If you’d like to help support Bite Size Vegan so I can keep putting in the long hours to bring you this educational resources, please check out the support page where you can give a one-time donation or receive perk and rewards for your support by joining the Nugget Army!

For more on the dire state of our oceans, see this post, and to help explain pain in fish to kids, see this post.

See ya next nugget!






★Watch More!


▶︎➤Featured Videos:
Fish & Marine Life Series [so far]
Empty Oceans: Is The World Running Out Of Fish?
Do Fish Have FEELINGS? [KIDS Video]
How Many Animals Do We Kill?
The Human Cost of Animal Testing
Do Animals Grieve?
Is Eating Meat A Personal Choice?

Flagship Paper For “Fish DO Feel Pain”– Do fishes have nociceptors? Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system.

Flagship Paper For “Fish DO Feel Pain”Flagship Paper For “Fish DON’T Feel Pain” The Neurobehavioral Nature of Fishes and the Question of Awareness and Pain by James D. Rose in Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10(1): 1–38 (2002)

Do Fish Feel Pain? by Victoria Braithwaite

Can fish really feel pain? By J D Rose, R Arlinghaus, S J Cooke, B K Diggles, W Sawynok, E D Stevens and C D L Wynne

Welfare Aspects Of Animal Stunning And Killing Methods by the European Food Safety Authority

Trigeminal somatosensory innervation of the head of a teleost fish with particular reference to nociception by Lynne U. Sneddon in Brain Research Volume 972, Issues 1–2, 16 May 2003, Pages 44–52

Teleost Welfare: Behavioural, Cognitive And Physiological Aspects In Oreochromis Mossambicus

An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation by Jeremy Bentham

Know thine enemy: fighting fish gather information from observing conspecific interactions by R. F. Oliveira, P. K. McGregor, and C. Latruffe

Does darkening signal submission in territorial contests between juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar? by O’Connor KI, Metcalfe NB, Taylor AC.

Can fish suffer?: perspectives on sentience, pain, fear and stress by K.P Chandroo, I.J.H Duncan, R.D Moccia, in Applied Animal Behaviour Science Volume 86, Issues 3–4, June 2004, Pages 225–250

An HSI Report: Fish and Pain Perception by Stephanie Yue, Ph.D.

Chervova, L. S., 1997. Pain Sensitivity and Behavior of Fishes. Journal of Ichthyology C/C Voprosy Ikhtiologii 37: 98-102.
How many fish are caught each year? [Simplified] [Longer Version]

National Research Council (US) Committee on Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals.

Does she have feelings, too? by By Sanjida O’Connell

Biologist Victoria Braithwaite Profile

Do fish feel pain? Not as humans do, study suggests

The international association for the study of pain

** For those interested an expansion upon the anatomical similarities of fish and mammals: Anatomical comparisons of specific brain structures, such as the limbic system (responsible for emotions, memory, and learning in mammals) show that fish have a similar brain region called telencephalon.  Several studies established that the structure of fish brains is consistent with the capacity to experience pain and fear, and by extension, suffering. For more detailed information, please see Welfare Aspects Of Animal Stunning And Killing Methods by the European Food Safety Authority.

9 thoughts on “Do Fish Feel Pain?

    sally anne hubbard says:

    Wonderful video and article. Fish and all beings feel pain no matter to what degree.

    Thank you for educating people.

    thank you so much sally anne! happy to do it :) and totally agree with you

    Sophia says:

    Emily, I’m impressed. It’s amazing how much time, work and passion you put into your activism. I know that what ever we do to make the vegan future happen – it will never be enough. But people like you make me believe that one day it will happen.
    I couldn’t watch the video without interruptions. I got up und walked around in my room every two or three minutes. It’s so sad that many people (including people who claim to love animals) don’t really acknowledge that fish too deserve to live a happy life without pain and suffering.
    Why? Because they can’t scream? I’ve heard a lot of people say “Well, I don’t eat meat but it’s okay to eat fish” and it just makes me angry and sad.
    Keep up the good work and thanks again for this awesome video.

    Love, Sophia

    P.S.: I’m sorry for the long comment and for any grammar/spelling mistakes I probably made. I’m a German vegan. :)

    thank you so much Sophia! and your English is lovely- my German is far, far worse!! and thank you so much for your kind words. i love your passion and your compassion is extremely evident. thank you for watching even though it was hard. vielen, vielen Dank und liebe Grüße von den USA :)

    Econdemocracy says:

    I remember as a child being force (well at the very least, storngly pressured – I already thought it was gross and ‘mean to the fish’) to fish one time. I really didn’t want to and they kept pushing me. Finally I agreed to hold the rod. A fish was caught…the hook exited its head immediately next to or at the rim of, its eye. I just freaked and handed it back to parents with an accusing look (I was young so I don’t remember what happened next) but my look to them was like saying without words “NOW will you admit we shouldn’t be doing this? I’ll never do this again”

    I remember reading at the time, in 2003 on BBC, exactly one of the pieces of the vast amount of research you so nicely distilled here ( including Sneddon) I could have sworn that BBC also had even earlier, an article with another twist showing strong evidence of cognitive processing fo the pain by the fish, with electricity. Can’t find it, not matter how I google, on BBC. Closest thing I found is this…which I think is remarkable:

    “some fish use sound to communicate distress when they are threatened e.g. when nets are dipped into their tanks. In one experiment, fish grunted when they received an electric shock; what’s more, the fish then began to grunt as soon as they saw the electrode. ”

    I can’t remember (too many years) if that’s what I was thinking of (or electrified one side of a tank?) the studies blur together over the years…but your amazing distillation included stuff I had never heard of, as well as reminding me of this.

    Final thought – even in 2003 I remember thinking to myself: “they could have done this years ago (if they think it’s ok to experiment on animals, which these people do..) why now? Probably AR awareness slowly seeping in..” So over time (and hopefully in an ethical way instead of injecting into lips etc) over time as AR awareness grows, science will bother asking the questions that answer (in ethical ways) about pain, questions that they used to not even bother to ask. Science may think it’s unbiased, but there’s bias not only in the process, but even in “which questions do we bother asking?” there is cultural bias. AR including the great work at BSV is helping shift awareness in society, and that eventually, reaches scientists. If that researcher ever does quit eating fish (other animal products too) it will be because of slowly growing awareness – including thanks to vids like this :-)

    thanks so much for sharing all of this. and you’re very right- there is no unbiased human…scientist or not- doesn’t really exist!

    Econdemocracy says:

    ” what’s more, the fish then began to grunt as soon as they saw the electrode.”

    And this “no” scientist thinks he’s proven they only have instinct? But they react as soon as they SEE the electrode (after initial pain earlier)? Gimme a break!

    First off, thank you so very much, Emily, for your admirable and impressive advocacy for fish, and for all of our fellow sentient beings. It is most sincerely appreciated. I haven’t had chance to review this page yet but I’m very much looking forward to doing so.

    Econdemocracy, regarding the BBC report you seem to recall on goldfish and electricity, it’s possible the BBC reported something on these studies after they came out: “Goldfish which are given electric shock show agitated swimming but the threshold for this response is increased if morphine is injected. It was also demonstrated that naloxone (opioid antagonist) blocks the morphine effect (Jansen and Greene, 1970).”


    “Studies have shown that goldfish are able to learn to avoid noxious stimuli such as electric shock (Portavella et al., 2002; Portavella et al., 2004).”

    from p. 14 of:

    Thank you for sharing the prescient experience you had when your parent took you fishing. We would love to include it on the Fish Feel website page where others have shared their accounts of how they came to relate to fish: If you would like to share your account there -or anyone else would like to share theirs- please contact me at: and thank you again!

    Mary, thank you so much for your comment- i love your site and what you are doing for the fish of this word. i hope you watched the video and that it stood up to the quality work that you do. many thanks!

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