The health of our oceans is absolutely vital to all life on this planet, including those of us on land. In fact the oceans are the only reason our planet even has life. Earth’s first breath of oxygen came from cyanobacteria over 2.7 billion years ago.
But now the oceans are facing total destruction from the very beings they brought to life: humans. The collapse of our oceans will spell disaster for all life on this planet. As marine life conservationist Captain Paul Watson of Sea Shepherd says, “If the oceans die, we all die.”
Humans have fished the oceans for thousands of years, but with the rise of commercial fishing methods, pollution, runoff, and habitat destruction, marine animal populations are no longer able to replenish themselves fast enough.
This video is going to look into the vital question: is our ocean running out of fish? [tweet this] And if so, what is the implication for life on this planet?
This issue is incredibly complex and we will barely be touching the surface, much like our vastly unexplored oceans.
To understand the depletion of marine life in our oceans, me must address the main causes: overfishing, ocean dead zones, pollution, and habitat destruction. We’re also going to look into what the main source of this oceanic destruction is and why it’s rarely or never discussed by those individuals and organizations dedicated to protecting the oceans and their inhabitants.
Let’s start with the most obvious and oft-discussed reason for the reduction of marine life: overfishing. 90-100 million tonnes of fish are pulled from our oceans each year with some sources even estimating 150 million tonnes. Between the 1950’s to 2011 worldwide catches increased 5 fold while the amount of fish in sea was reduced by ½. 3/4 of the world’s fisheries are exploited or depleted and some scientists predict that we will see fishless oceans by 2048.[tweet this]
According to the most current report in 2014 from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the Untied Nations, “the world’s marine fisheries have expanded continuously to a production peak of 86.4 million tonnes in 1996 but have since exhibited a general declining trend. Global recorded production was 82.6 million tonnes in 2011 and 79.7 million tonnes in 2012.”
However, a more recent study published in 2016 challenges these statistics, finding gross underreporting of catches as well as issues with the FAO’s data entry methods leading to underrepresentation. The study’s creators, Daniel Pauly and Dirk Zeller, “suggest that catch actually peaked at 130 million tonnes,” rather than the FAO’s 86.4 million, “and has been declining much more strongly since.” Their reconstruction of total catches showed a decline of over three times that of the reported data as presented by the FAO.
With 60% of West Africa’s and a staggering 92% of China’s industrial fishing remaining unreported, even this corrected figure may not capture the full magnitude of commercial fishing.
Statistics on ocean life in general remain cloudy, both due to the practical difficulty of tracking marine life and the terminology used by the organizations. In their 2012 State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture Report, the FAO found 87.3% of fish stocks were fully exploited or overexploited.
However, comparing this figure to the report before and after is no easy feat. Between their 2010 and 2012 reports, the FAO reduced it’s level of exploitation terminology from 6 to 3 terms. Now, in their most recent report from 2014, they’ve further clouded the issue, replacing “exploited” with “fished” and introducing two vague categories termed “sustainable” and “unsustainable levels.” This terminology has the dual affect of both making the situation sound less dire and making comparison between the reports unnecessarily difficult.
But when you pick through the data and unravel the terminology, the upward trend of fish stock depletion becomes clear. The bottom line is that as of the most current report from 2014 using 2011 data, less than 10% (9.9%) of our world’s fisheries remain unexploited. [tweet this] [see endnote 23 for an elaboration of the terminology changes & data unravelling].
It’s not just the amount of fish being taken from the ocean for food that is the issue. Far more devastating are those non-target species unintentionally captured, termed bycatch, or more accurately, by-kill. According to the FAO, for every 1 pound of fish caught, up to 5 pounds of unintended marine species are caught and discarded as by-kill, though figures can be as high as 20lbs of untargeted species for every pound of targeted animals killed.
A report that just came out a few weeks before this video found that in select US fisheries alone, bycatch in 2013 totaled approximately 689.1 million pounds.
All of the industrial fishing methods used around the world come with the high cost of bycatch. One study analyzed bycatch solely from pelagic longline fishing in the Pacific Ocean. Longlining is a method which uses a main fishing line up to 100 kilometers in length, with secondary lines branching off it, each set with hundreds of thousands of barbed, baited hooks. The study found that 4.4 million non-targeted marine animals are killed as bycatch due to pelagic longline fishing in the Pacific Ocean every year, including, on average, 3.3 million sharks, 1 million marlins, 59,000 sea turtles, almost 77,000 albatrosses, and almost 20,000 dolphins and whales. [see endnote for more]
It’s estimated that 650,000 marine mammals, including whales, dolphins and seals, are killed or seriously injured every year by commercial fisheries outside the United States. Because of this, almost every foreign fish product sold in the United States enters the U.S. market in violation of federal law, namely the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), which has remained pitifully unenforced for over 40 years. With 90% of all seafood consumed in the United States coming from foreign sources,  this means that the American seafood industry has a large hand in devastating marine mammal populations while grossly violating its own federal law. [tweet this]
The mechanical method used for fishing isn’t the only issue; there is also the method of species targeting. Humans tend to go after the biggest fish first until they are no longer available. Then they move on down the chain, a process marine biologist Daniel Pauly termed “fishing down marine food webs. The removal of apex predators leads to what’s called “trophic downgrading” where the loss of predators allows other species to grow unimpeded, upsetting the entire ecosystem.
One study suggests that the removal of sharks may contribute to climate change by leaving the unchecked numbers of species to feast on the ocean’s vegetation, releasing the ancient carbon found there in massive quantities. Dr. Peter Macreadie, one of the study’s authors, cautioned that “If we just lost 1 per cent of the oceans’ blue carbon ecosystems, it would be equivalent to releasing 460 million tonnes of carbon annually, which is about the equivalent of about 97 million cars. It’s about equivalent to Australia’s annual greenhouse gas emissions.”
With 73 million sharks killed every year for the shark fin industry and 40-50 million sharks dying ever year as by-kill, not to mention the impact of shark culls, the ocean’s most vital predators are under attack. And the repercussions of their decimation will affect us all.
Not only do fishers move from species to species, but they will also move from area to area, decimating one before moving onto the next. For example, 33% of the EU’s seafood comes from developing nations.
While overfishing is certainly the most obvious drain on the world’s fish, and the most talked about, it is by no means the only cause. Ocean dead zones are a huge threat to marine life. Dead zones, or hypoxic zones, are areas of the ocean where there has been such a reduction in oxygen that animal life suffocates and dies.
While ocean protection organizations will mention dead zones, they by and large ignore their number one cause: animal agriculture. Animal agriculture is the leading cause of not only ocean dead zones, but also species extinction, water pollution, and habitat destruction, all of which severely impact our oceans.
In the documentary Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret, Dr. Richard Oppenlander discuses the immense impact of land-based animal agriculture on our oceans: “Livestock operations on land has caused more than – or created more than 500 nitrogen-flooded dead zones around the world and our oceans. It comprises more than 95,000 square miles of areas completely devoid of life. So any meaningful discussions of the state of our oceans has to always begin by frank discussions about land-based animal agriculture, which is not what our conservation groups, Oceana being the largest on in the world now — the most influential, as well as others — it’s not what is at the apex of their discussions.”
In addition to not acknowledging the main cause of water pollution, habitat destruction, species extinction and ocean dead zones, Oceana and other major ocean defense organizations propose that the solution to the decimation of ocean life is to eat sustainable seafood.
Unfortunately, there is no such thing as sustainable seafood. [tweet this] With whales dying from starvation, and 90% of all large fish species gone, the ocean can’t even sustain itself, let alone the up to 150 million tonnes of sea life we pull from it every year. Additionally, sustainable seafood labels also don’t account for the greenhouse gas emissions caused by fishing.
The 2013 State of the Ocean Report from the IPSO stated, “Not only are we already experiencing severe declines in many species, to the point of commercial extinction in some cases, and an unparalleled rate of regional extinctions of habitat types … we now face losing marine species and entire marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs, within a single generation. Unless action is taken now, the consequences of our activities are at a high risk of causing – through the combined effects of climate change, overexploitation, pollution and habitat loss – the next globally significant extinction event in the ocean.”
It’s clear that wild fish and marine animals are in danger. So what about farming fish? Isn’t that an ideal solution? Wouldn’t it reduce the amount of fish we’re taking form the sea?
Sadly, the opposite is true. When fish farms, or aquaculture took off in the 1950’s, the number of wild caught fish also rose dramatically. From 1950 to 2001, fish farming increased 38 fold from 1 million tonnes 38 million tonnes.
Fish farms actually increase the number of wild fish caught because farmed carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Aquaculture systems also modify and destroy wild fish habitats, pollute the water with waste disposal, introduce exotic species and are breeding grounds for pathogens and pests.
Today, the majority of wild-caught fish go to feed our farmed fish as well as our pigs, cows and chickens. In an extremely thorough and mathematically challenging article, Harish Sethu of CountingAnimals.com deduced that the United States alone uses more than 5.6 billion pounds of wild-caught fish to feed the animals we eat, with between 144 and 293 wild sea animals killed annually to feed the farmed fish and shrimp eaten by the average American consumer.
By the best estimate allowed with hindrance of the FAO’s underreporting and impersonal quantifying of sea life by the tonne and not the individual, every year we kill over 2.8 trillion fish. That’s 2.7 trillion more every year than the number of humans to have every existed in the history of our species.
So if fishing is so unsustainable, why is it continuing at a frenzied pace? Well, it’s no surprise that a huge motivator is money. A 2010 study found that, “global fisheries subsidies for 2003 are between US$ 25 and 29 billion … These results imply that the global community is paying the fishing industry billions each year to continue fishing even when it would not be profitable otherwise—effectively funding the over-exploitation of marine resources.”
Now all of what we’ve covered has not even touched on the ethical side of fishing. You can see my video on whether fish feel pain to look into that aspect.
The bottom line is that there is no way to fish sustainably. Our oceans, our earth, and we ourselves, are facing a massive extinction. We have already gone beyond the point of being able to reverse the damage. As Dr. Oppenlander states, “It has been 300 million years since the last time our oceans have been this warm and acidic, and at that time, it took over 30 million years to recover.”
We have to stop fishing. And we have to call for the organizations charged with the duty of protecting our oceans to actually protect them, not have an active hand in their destruction by pedaling a myth of sustainability.
So what can you do to help? Stop eating seafood and educate others. Send them this video, and/or the blog post with all of the scientific backing via careful citations. Share with these images: ONE | TWO. Dig into the resources below if you doubt these claims. But make a change. If the oceans die, we all die. [tweet this]
This video report and the accompanying article took approximately 159 hours to produce. If you’d like to help support the creation of more free, scientifically-backed educational videos, see the support page or join us in the Nugget Army on Patreon. A special thanks to my $50 and above patrons and my entire Patreon family for making this video and all my videos possible. You have my undying gratitude.
If you found this video helpful, please give it a thumbs up and share it with friends, family, and organizations to educate and inspire action.
At this point, we are the only hope for the ocean. And the ocean is our only hope for survival. [tweet this]
Documentaries & Organizations:
Sea Shepherd (an incredible ocean conservation society actually fighting for our oceans)
Troubled Waters– documentary written/produced/shot by Matthew Judge with original music by Robert Drane
(in this film Judge calls for sustainable fishing but is now reconsidering this position, I learned through email contact when asking for his permission to use footage)
The Shark Cull– documentary by Sea Shepherd on the systematic elimination of sharks
Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret– documentary by Kip Anderson and Keegan Kuhn, covers the environmental impact of diet, including oceans and overfishing
Revolution– documentary by Rob Stewart on the imminent collapse of the oceans
(Contains recommendations of sustainable seafood & fishing, which this investigation of the current data shows is not possible and not a solution. However, the documentary remains a strong resource)
CITATIONS (FULL BIBLIOGRAPHY available below citations)
 Bettina E. Schirrmeister et al., “Evolution of Multicellularity Coincided with Increased Diversification of Cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 5 (January 29, 2013): 1791–96, doi:10.1073/pnas.1209927110.
 The “tonnes” referred to throughout this paper are metric tons. [tonne/metric ton = 1,000kg/ 2,204.6lbs; ton(UK) = 1,016kg/2,240lbs; ton(US) = 907.2kg/2,000lbs]
 Fen Montaigne, “The Global Fisheries Crises (Still Waters, The Global Fish Crisis),” accessed February 25, 2016.
 Boris Worm and et al, “Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services,” Science 314, no. 5800 (November 3, 2006): 787–90, doi:10.1126.
 Boris Worm and et al, “Supporting Online Material: Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services,” accessed February 25, 2016.
 Daniel Pauly and Dirk Zeller, “Catch Reconstructions Reveal That Global Marine Fisheries Catches Are Higher than Reported and Declining,” Nature Communications 7 (January 19, 2016): 10244, doi:10.1038/ncomms10244.
 Mihai Andrei, “Oceans Are Running out of Fish – Much Faster than We Thought,” ZME Science, accessed February 25, 2016.
 Chelsea Harvey, “Catch Reconstructuion’ Study In Laymen’s Terms: Why We’ve Been Hugely Underestimating the Overfishing of the Oceans,” The Washington Post, January 19, 2016.
 The FAO’s use of the “no data” category for areas that don’t provide figures later becomes a “0,” artificially lowering the overall statistics; Daniel Pauly and Dirk Zeller, “Catch Reconstructions Reveal That Global Marine Fisheries Catches Are Higher than Reported and Declining,” Nature Communications 7 (January 19, 2016), doi:10.1038/ncomms10244.
 Andrei, “Oceans Are Running out of Fish – Much Faster than We Thought.” ZME Science.
 In their 2010 report, the FAO used the categories (and corresponding percentages) underexploited (3%), moderately exploited (12%), fully exploited (53%), overexploited (28%), depleted (3%), and recovering (1%) for fish stock status. This means 87% of stocks were in some form of exploitation. In their 2012 report, they combined underexploited and moderately exploited into the new category of non-fully exploited (12.7%), kept fully exploited (now at 57%), and combined overexploited, depleted, and recovering, into overexploited (29.9%). This means that 87.3% of stocks were in some form of exploitation. Finally, in 2014, they changed non-fully exploited to underfished (9.9%), fully exploited became fully fished (61.3%), and overexploited became overfished (28.8%). This means that 90.1% of stocks were in some form of exploitation as of 2011 (data used in the 2014 report). In summary, less than 10% (9.9%) of our fisheries remain unexploited.
 Roert Ovetz, “New Report: Longlines Annually Capture and Kill 4.4 Million Sharks, Billfish, Seabirds, Sea Turtles and Mammals in the Pacific,” 2004, Turtle Island Restoration Network, accessed February 27, 2016.
Note: A study by the U.S. Department of Commerce on the impact of worldwide pelagic longline fishing on loggerhead and leatherback turtles estimated that 230,000 loggerheads and 50,000 leatherbacks are caught annually by pelagic longlines.
 Environmental Justice Foundation, “Squandering The Seas: How Shrimp Trawling Is Threatening Ecological Integrity and Food Security Around the World.,” 2003.
 National Resources Defense Council, “Net Loss – The Killing of Marine Mammals in Foreign Fisheries, NRDC Report,” January 2014.
 Compliled and annotated by the Marine Mammal Commission and Updated for 2004 and 2007 amendments by NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service, “The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (As Amended 2007),” 2007.
 Trisha B. Atwood et al., “Predators Help Protect Carbon Stocks in Blue Carbon Ecosystems,” Nature Climate Change 5, no. 12 (September 28, 2015): 1038–45, doi:10.1038/nclimate2763.
 Ransom A. Myers and Boris Worm, “Rapid Worldwide Depletion of Predatory Fish Communities,” Nature 423, no. 6937 (May 15, 2003): 280–83, doi:10.1038/nature01610.
 Trisha B. Atwood et al., “Predators Help Protect Carbon Stocks in Blue Carbon Ecosystems,” Nature Climate Change 5, no. 12 (September 28, 2015): 1038–45, doi:10.1038/nclimate2763.
 Sarah Sedghi, “Shark Culling May Be Contributing to Climate Change,” Text, ABC News, (September 29, 2015).
 “PRESS RELEASE LOUISIANA UNIVERSITIES MARINE CONSORTIUM,” August 4, 2014.
 Environmental Protection Agency, “What’s the Problem? | Animal Waste | Region 9 | US EPA,” accessed February 27, 2016.
 Dr Richard Oppenlander, Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work (Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street Press, 2013).
 Brian Machovina, Kenneth J. Feeley, and William J. Ripple, “Biodiversity Conservation: The Key Is Reducing Meat Consumption,” Science of The Total Environment 536 (December 1, 2015): 419–31, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022.
 “PRESS RELEASE LOUISIANA UNIVERSITIES MARINE CONSORTIUM”; “hypoxia_press_release_2014.pdf,” accessed February 27, 2016.
 S. E. Alter, E. Rynes, and S. R. Palumbi, “DNA Evidence for Historic Population Size and Past Ecosystem Impacts of Gray Whales,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, no. 38 (September 18, 2007): 15162–67, doi:10.1073/pnas.0706056104.
 Myers and Worm, “Rapid Worldwide Depletion of Predatory Fish Communities,”Nature 423, no. 6937 (May 15, 2003): 280–83. doi:10.1038/nature01610.
 Jelle Bijma et al., “Climate Change and the Oceans – What Does the Future Hold?,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, The Global State of the Ocean; Interactions Between Stresses, Impacts and Some Potential Solutions. Synthesis papers from the International Programme on the State of the Ocean 2011 and 2012 Workshops, 74, no. 2 (September 30, 2013): 495–505, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.07.022.
 Mebrahtu Ateweberhan et al., “Climate Change Impacts on Coral Reefs: Synergies with Local Effects, Possibilities for Acclimation, and Management Implications,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, The Global State of the Ocean; Interactions Between Stresses, Impacts and Some Potential Solutions. Synthesis papers from the International Programme on the State of the Ocean 2011 and 2012 Workshops, 74, no. 2 (September 30, 2013): 526–39, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.06.011.
 Atwood et al., “Predators Help Protect Carbon Stocks in Blue Carbon Ecosystems.”
 International Program On The State Of The Ocean, “IPSO State of The Ocean Report 2013 Combined Research Papers,” 2013.
 International Program On The State Of The Ocean, “Overview of IPSO The State of the Ocean Report 2013,” 2013.
 Stefania Vannuccini and for FAO, Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit, “OVERVIEW OF FISH PRODUCTION, UTILIZATION,CONSUMPTION AND TRADE,” 2003.
 The most recent figure I could find came from FishCount.org’s extrapolation of FAO data, which states that it is estimated that between 38 and 128 billion farmed fish were killed for food globally in 2011, a number which rises every year. Add this to the 0.97 to 2.7 trillion wild fish caught annually, and we kill roughly 1 trillion to 2.8 trillion fish a year. This is not counting fish that die on aquafarms before slaughter, are caught and released only to die from the stress, or countless others. Literally countless because we didn’t count them. For more on how many animals we kill, see this video
 U. Rashid Sumaila et al., “A Bottom-up Re-Estimation of Global Fisheries Subsidies,” Journal of Bioeconomics 12, no. 3 (2010): 201–25, doi:10.1007/s10818-010-9091-8.
Anderson, Kip, and Keegan Kuhn. Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret, 2014. http://www.cowspiracy.com.
Andrei, Mihai. “Oceans Are Running out of Fish – Much Faster than We Thought.” ZME Science. Accessed February 25, 2016. http://www.zmescience.com/science/oceanography/fish-stocks-ocean-20012016/.
Animal Welfare Institute. “Fish Farming.” Accessed February 27, 2016. https://awionline.org/content/fish-farming.
Arthus-Bertrand, Yann, and Michael Pitiot. Planet Ocean. YouTube Video, n.d. http://www.yannarthusbertrand.org/en/films-tv/planet-ocean.
Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu, David A. Feary, Shashank Keshavmurthy, Allen Chen, Michael H. Schleyer, and Charles R. C. Sheppard. “Climate Change Impacts on Coral Reefs: Synergies with Local Effects, Possibilities for Acclimation, and Management Implications.” Marine Pollution Bulletin, The Global State of the Ocean; Interactions Between Stresses, Impacts and Some Potential Solutions. Synthesis papers from the International Programme on the State of the Ocean 2011 and 2012 Workshops, 74, no. 2 (September 30, 2013): 526–39. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.06.011.
Atwood, Trisha B., Rod M. Connolly, Euan G. Ritchie, Catherine E. Lovelock, Michael R. Heithaus, Graeme C. Hays, James W. Fourqurean, and Peter I. Macreadie. “Predators Help Protect Carbon Stocks in Blue Carbon Ecosystems.” Nature Climate Change 5, no. 12 (September 28, 2015): 1038–45. doi:10.1038/nclimate2763.
(Australia), Humane Society International. “Fact Sheets – Long Line Fishing,” October 18, 2012. http://www.hsi.org.au/go/to/119/fact-sheets-long-line-fishing.html#.VtGdixh0crg.
Baum, J. K. “Collapse and Conservation of Shark Populations in the Northwest Atlantic.” Science 299 (2003): 389–92. doi:10.1126/science.1079777.
BBC. “Planet Earth,” 2006. http://amzn.to/1LtIWx4.
Benaka, Lee R., et al, National, and Marine Fisheries Service. “U.S. National Bycatch Report,” February 2016. https://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/Assets/Observer-Program/bycatch-report-update-2/NBR%20First%20Edition%20Update%202_Final3.pdf.
Bijma, Jelle, Hans-O. Pörtner, Chris Yesson, and Alex D. Rogers. “Climate Change and the Oceans – What Does the Future Hold?” Marine Pollution Bulletin, The Global State of the Ocean; Interactions Between Stresses, Impacts and Some Potential Solutions. Synthesis papers from the International Programme on the State of the Ocean 2011 and 2012 Workshops, 74, no. 2 (September 30, 2013): 495–505. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.07.022.
Blue Planet: Seas of Life. BBC Home Entertainment, 2008. http://amzn.to/1OVnWdz.
“Bottom-Up_Re-estimation_Sumalia_2010.pdf.” Accessed February 27, 2016. http://oceana.org/sites/default/files/Bottom-Up_Re-estimation_Sumalia_2010.pdf.
Bours, Helene, and et al. “Out of Line: The Failture of the Global Tuna Longline Fisheries.” Greenpeace, November 2013. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/oceans/2013/459-OutOfLineReport-DEF-LR.pdf.
Brahic, Catherine. “Starving Whales Point to Depleted Oceans,” September 11, 2007. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn12623-starving-whales-point-to-depleted-oceans#.VCcJr_mSwkM.
Branch, Trevor A., Reg Watson, Elizabeth A. Fulton, Simon Jennings, Carey R. McGilliard, Grace T. Pablico, Daniel Ricard, and Sean R. Tracey. “The Trophic Fingerprint of Marine Fisheries.” Nature 468, no. 7322 (November 18, 2010): 431–35. doi:10.1038/nature09528.
Bullis, H. R. “Preliminary Report on Exploratory Longline Fishing for Tuna in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.” Comm. Fish. Rev. 17 (1955): 1–15.
Casey, J. M. “Fish Assemblages on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland,” 2000.
Casey, J. M., and R. A. Myers. “Near Extinction of a Large, Widely Distributed Fish.” Science 281 (1998): 690–92. doi:10.1126/science.281.5377.690.
Caton, A. E. “A Review of Aspects of Southern Bluefin Tuna Biology, Population and Fisheries.” Inter-Am. Trop. Tuna Comm. Spec. Rep. 7 (1991): 181–350.
Center for History and New Media. “Zotero Quick Start Guide,” n.d. http://zotero.org/support/quick_start_guide.
Compliled and annotated by the Marine Mammal Commission, and Updated for 2004 and 2007 amendments by NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service. “The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (As Amended 2007),” 2007. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/laws/mmpa.pdf.
Davidian, M., and D. M. Giltinan. “Nonlinear Models for Repeated Measurement Data,” 1995.
de Séligny, J. F. P., and R. Grainger. “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010,” 2010. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1820e/i1820e.pdf.
Diversity, Center for Biological. “How Eating Meat Hurts Wildlife and the Planet.” Take Extinction Off Your Plate. Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www.takeextinctionoffyourplate.com/meat_and_wildlife.html.
EarthTalk. “What Causes Ocean ‘Dead Zones’?” Scientific American. Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ocean-dead-zones/.
Environmental Justice Foundation. “Squandering The Seas: How Shrimp Trawling Is Threatening Ecological Integrity and Food Security Around the World.,” 2003. http://ejfoundation.org/sites/default/files/public/squandering_the_seas.pdf.
Environmental Protection Agency. “What’s the Problem? | Animal Waste | Region 9 | US EPA.” Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www3.epa.gov/region9/animalwaste/problem.html#main.
“Estimating the Number of Fish Caught in Global Fishing Each Year.” Accessed February 28, 2016. http://www.fishcount.org.uk/published/std/fishcountstudy.pdf.
European Environment Agency. “Progress towards the European 2010 Biodiversity Target —
European Environment Agency.” Publication. Accessed February 27, 2016.
Field, C. B., M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski. “Primary Production of the Biosphere: Integrating Terrestrial and Oceanic Components.” Science 281 (1998): 237–40. doi:10.1126/science.281.5374.237.
“Fish Calculation Elaboration,” n.d.
FishCount.org. “Fish Count Estimates | Fishcount.org.uk.” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://fishcount.org.uk/fish-count-estimates#farmedestimate.
Fish Watch. “The Global Picture.” Accessed February 29, 2016. http://www.fishwatch.gov/sustainable-seafood/the-global-picture.
Foer, Jonathan Safran. Eating Animals. New York: Back Bay Books, 2010. http://amzn.to/1QmztEF.
Fogarty, M. J., and S. A. Murawski. “Large-Scale Disturbance and the Structure of Marine Systems: Fishery Impacts on Georges Bank.” Ecol. Appl. 8, no. (suppl.) (1998): 6–22.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Opportunities and Challenges. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014. http://www.fao.org/3/d1eaa9a1-5a71-4e42-86c0-f2111f07de16/i3720e.pdf.
Gjerde, Kristina M., Duncan Currie, Kateryna Wowk, and Karen Sack. “Ocean in Peril: Reforming the Management of Global Ocean Living Resources in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction.” Marine Pollution Bulletin, The Global State of the Ocean; Interactions Between Stresses, Impacts and Some Potential Solutions. Synthesis papers from the International Programme on the State of the Ocean 2011 and 2012 Workshops, 74, no. 2 (September 30, 2013): 540–51. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.07.037.
Goldenberg, Suzanne. “America’s Nine Most Wasteful Fisheries Named.” The Guardian, March 20, 2014, sec. Environment. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/mar/20/americas-nine-most-wasteful-fisheries-named.
“Great Oxidation Event: More Oxygen through Multicellularity — ScienceDaily.” Accessed February 27, 2016. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130117084856.htm.
Harrison, David. “Scientists Demand an End to ‘Green’ Longline Fishing – Telegraph.” The Telegraph. Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1477111/Scientists-demand-an-end-to-green-longline-fishing.html.
Harvey, Chelsea. “Why We’ve Been Hugely Underestimating the Overfishing of the Oceans.” The Washington Post, January 19, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/01/19/why-weve-been-hugely-underestimating-the-overfishing-of-the-oceans/.
Haub, Carl, and Population Reference Bureau. “How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?” Accessed February 29, 2016.http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2002/ HowManyPeople HaveEverLivedonEarth.aspx.
Hidden Disgrace, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcJ_TPWdkss&feature=youtu.be.
Hogan, C. Michael. “Causes of Extinction.” The Encyclopedia of Earth. Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/150962/.
Hutchings, J. A., and R. A. Myers. “The North Atlantic Fisheries: Successes, Failures and Challenges,” 1995, 38–93.
Hutchinson, Thomas H., Brett P. Lyons, John E. Thain, and Robin J. Law. “Evaluating Legacy Contaminants and Emerging Chemicals in Marine Environments Using Adverse Outcome Pathways and Biological Effects-Directed Analysis.” Marine Pollution Bulletin, The Global State of the Ocean; Interactions Between Stresses, Impacts and Some Potential Solutions. Synthesis papers from the International Programme on the State of the Ocean 2011 and 2012 Workshops, 74, no. 2 (September 30, 2013): 517–25. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.06.012.
“Interactions of Pacific Tuna Fisheries.” Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/t1817e/t1817e15.htm.
International Program On The State Of The Ocean. “IPSO State of The Ocean Report 2013 Combined Research Papers,” 2013. http://www.stateoftheocean.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/State-of-the-Ocean-2013-report.pdf.
ISPO. “The State of the Ocean Report 2013,” 2013. http://www.stateoftheocean.org/science/state-of-the-ocean-report/.
Jackson, J. B. C. “Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems.” Science 293 (2001): 629–38. doi:10.1126/science.1063789.
Judge, Matthew. Troubled Waters, 2015. https://youtu.be/YACTNvuijQY.
Kareiva, Peter. “Why Do We Keep Hearing Global Fisheries Are Collapsing?” TALK Blog from The Nature Conservancy, November 29, 2010. http://blog.nature.org/conservancy/2010/11/29/fisheries-apocalypse-ocean-fish-stock-peter-kareiva-ray-hilborn/.
Karpa, Doug, Todd Steiner, and Peter Fugazzotto. “California Driftnet Fishery: The True Costs of a 20th Century Fishery in the 21st Century.” Turtle Island Restoration Netwok, 2015.
Kock, K.-H., and Y. Shimadzu. “Southern Ocean Ecology: The BIOMASS Perspective,” 1994, 287–312.
Lv, Weiwei, Zhiquan Liu, Yang Yang, Youhui Huang, Bin Fan, Qichen Jiang, and Yunlong Zhao. “Loss and Self-Restoration of Macrobenthic Diversity in Reclamation Habitats of Estuarine Islands in Yangtze Estuary, China.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 103, no. 1–2 (February 15, 2016): 128–36. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.12.030.
Lymbery, Philip, and for Compassion In World Farming Trust. “In Too Deep: The Welfare of Intensively Farmed Fish,” 2002. https://www.ciwf.org.uk/includes/documents/cm_docs/2008/i/in_too_deep_2001.pdf.
Lyne, V., J. Parslow, J. Young, A. Pearce, and M. Lynch. “Development, Application and Evaluation of the Use of Remote Sensing Data by Australian Fisheries,” 2000.
Machovina, Brian, Kenneth J. Feeley, and William J. Ripple. “Biodiversity Conservation: The Key Is Reducing Meat Consumption.” Science of The Total Environment 536 (December 1, 2015): 419–31. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022.
Miranda, Daniele de A., and Gustavo Freire de Carvalho-Souza. “Are We Eating Plastic-Ingesting Fish?” Marine Pollution Bulletin 103, no. 1–2 (February 15, 2016): 109–14. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.12.035.
Mohammadizadeh, Maria, Kazem Darvish Bastami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, and Marjan Esmaeilzadeh. “Heavy Metal Accumulation in Tissues of Two Sea Cucumbers, Holothuria Leucospilota and Holothuria Scabra in the Northern Part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 103, no. 1–2 (February 15, 2016): 354–59. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.12.033.
Montaigne, Fen. “The Global Fisheries Crises (Still Waters, The Global Fish Crisis).” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2007/04/global-fisheries-crisis/montaigne-text.
Mood, A, and P Brooke. “Estimating the Number of Fish Caught in Global Fishing Each Year,” 2010 version. http://fishcount.org.uk/published/std/fishcountstudy.pdf.
Mood, A, and P Brooke. “Estimating the Number of Fish Caught in Global Fishing Each Year,” 2012 version. http://fishcount.org.uk/published/std/fishcountstudy2.pdf.
Mood, Alison. “How Many Fish Are Caught Each Year – Section 4 of ‘Worse Things Happen At Sea: The Welfare of Wild-Caught Fish,’” 2010. http://www.fishcount.org.uk/published/std/fishcountchapter19.pdf FULL Report: http://www.fishcount.org.uk/published/standard/fishcountfullrptSR.pdf.
Myers, R. A., J. A. Hutchings, and N. J. Barrowman. “Why Do Fish Stocks Collapse? The Example of Cod in Atlantic Canada.” Ecol. Appl. 7 (1997): 91–106.
Myers, R. A., and G. Mertz. “The Limits of Exploitation: A Precautionary Approach.” Ecol. Appl. 8, no. (suppl.) (1998): 165–69.
Myers, Ransom A., and Boris Worm. “Rapid Worldwide Depletion of Predatory Fish Communities.” Nature 423, no. 6937 (May 15, 2003): 280–83. doi:10.1038/nature01610.
National Marine Fisheries Service. “FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES, 2013.” Page. Accessed February 25, 2016. http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/commercial-fisheries/fus/fus13/index.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Tackling Bycatch in U.S. Fisheries. YouTube Video, n.d. https://youtu.be/xz8q6uHSdmg.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adniminstration. “How Has the Ocean Made Life on Land Possible?” Accessed February 27, 2016. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/facts/oceanproduction.html.
National Resources Defense Council. “Net Loss – The Killing of Marine Mammals in Foreign Fisheries, NRDC Report,” January 2014. http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/marine/files/mammals-foreign-fisheries-report.pdf.
Naylor, Rosamond L., Rebecca J. Goldburg, Harold Mooney, Malcolm Beveridge, Jason Clay, Carl Folke, Nils Kautsky, Jane Lubchenco, Jurgenne Primavera, and Meryl Williams. “Nature’s Subsidies to Shrimp and Salmon Farming.” Science 282, no. 5390 (October 30, 1998): 883–84. doi:10.1126/science.282.5390.883.
Naylor, Rosamond L., Rebecca J. Goldburg, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Nils Kautsky, Malcolm C. M. Beveridge, Jason Clay, Carl Folke, Jane Lubchenco, Harold Mooney, and Max Troell. “Effect of Aquaculture on World Fish Supplies.” Nature 405, no. 6790 (June 29, 2000): 1017–24. doi:10.1038/35016500.
Oceana. “Wasted Catch: Unsolved Problems in U.S. Fisheries,” March 2014. http://oceana.org/reports/wasted-catch-unsolved-problems-us-fisheries.
Oppenlander, Dr Richard. “Biodiversity and Food Choice: A Clarification.” Comfortably Unaware. Accessed February 27, 2016. http://comfortablyunaware.com/blog/biodiversity-and-food-choice-a-clarification/.
Oppenlander, Dr Richard. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street Press, 2013. http://amzn.to/1VJtAoO.
Oppenlander, Dr Richard. “Freshwater Depletion: Realities of Choice.” Comfortablyunaware. Accessed February 27, 2016. https://comfortablyunaware.wordpress.com/2014/11/25/freshwater-depletion-realities-of-choice/.
Oppenlander, Richard. “Comfortably Unaware :: Biodiversity and Food Choice: A Clarification.” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://comfortablyunaware.com/blog/biodiversity-and-food-choice-a-clarification/.
Ovetz, Roert. “New Report: Longlines Annually Capture and Kill 4.4 Million Sharks, Billfish, Seabirds, Sea Turtles and Mammals in the Pacific.” Turtle Island Restoration Network. Accessed February 27, 2016. https://seaturtles.org/newssection/new-report-longlines-annually-capture-and-kill-4-4-million-sharks-billfish-seabirds-sea-turtles-and-mammals-in-the-pacific/.
Pacific Bluefin Tuna Working Group of the International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna. “STOCK ASSESSMENT OF PACIFIC BLUEFIN TUNA,” 2014.
Pauly, D. “Anecdotes and the Shifting Baseline Syndrome of Fisheries.” Trends Ecol. Evol. 10 (1995): 430. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(00)89171-5.
Pauly, D. P. “Fish Population Dynamics in Tropical Waters: A Manual for Use with Programmable Calculators.” XF2006247134 8 (1984).
Pauly, Daniel. “Towards Sustainability in World Fisheries.” Nature 418 (2002): 689–95. doi:10.1038/nature01017.
Pauly, Daniel. “Beyond Duplicity and Ignorance in Global Fisheries.” Scientia Marina 73, no. 2 (June 30, 2009): 215–24. doi:10.3989/scimar.2009.73n2215.
Pauly, Daniel, Villy Christensen, Johanne Dalsgaard, Rainer Froese, and Francisco Torres. “Fishing Down Marine Food Webs.” Science 279, no. 5352 (February 6, 1998): 860–63. doi:10.1126/science.279.5352.860.
Pauly, Daniel, and Dirk Zeller. “Catch Reconstructions Reveal That Global Marine Fisheries Catches Are Higher than Reported and Declining.” Nature Communications 7 (January 19, 2016): 10244. doi:10.1038/ncomms10244.
Pauly, D., and V. Christensen. “Primary Production Required to Sustain Global Fisheries.” Nature 374 (1995): 255–57. doi:10.1038/374255a0.
Péron, Guillaume, Jean François Mittaine, and Bertrand Le Gallic. “Where Do Fishmeal and Fish Oil Products Come from? An Analysis of the Conversion Ratios in the Global Fishmeal Industry.” Marine Policy, Coping with global change in marine social-ecological systems, 34, no. 4 (July 2010): 815–20. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2010.01.027.
Perrin, Jacques, and Jacques Cluzaud. Disneynature: Oceans. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, 2010. http://amzn.to/1L7wWBK.
Pitcher, Tony J., and William W. L. Cheung. “Fisheries: Hope or Despair?” Marine Pollution Bulletin 74, no. 2 (September 30, 2013): 506–16. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.05.045.
“PRESS RELEASE LOUISIANA UNIVERSITIES MARINE CONSORTIUM,” August 4, 2014. http://www.gulfhypoxia.net/research/shelfwide%20cruises/2014/hypoxia_press_release_2014.pdf.
“Proceedings of the International Technical Expert Workshop on Marine Turtle Bycatch in Longline Fisheries.” NOAA Technigal Memorandum NMFS-F/OPR-26. U.S. Department of Commerce. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/interactions/turtle_bycatch_workshop.pdf.
Roach, John. “Seafood May Be Gone by 2048, Study Says.” National Geographic News. Accessed February 25, 2016. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/11/061102-seafood-threat.html.
Roberts, C. M. “Deep Impact: The Rising Toll of Fishing in the Deep Sea.” Trends Ecol. Evol. 242 (2002): 242–45. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02492-8.
Rothschild, B. J. “Competition for Gear in a Multiple-Species Fishery.” J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 31 (1967): 102–10.
SafeCatfish. Dirty Waters, Dangerous Fish, 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1nEPzsFpc0.
Schiff, Kenneth, Jeff Brown, Steen Trump, and Dane Hardin. “Near-Coastal Water Quality at Reference Sites Following Storm Events.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 103, no. 1–2 (February 15, 2016): 294–300. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.12.001.
Schirrmeister, Bettina E., Jurriaan M. de Vos, Alexandre Antonelli, and Homayoun C. Bagheri. “Evolution of Multicellularity Coincided with Increased Diversification of Cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 5 (January 29, 2013): 1791–96. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209927110.
Schirrmeister, Bettina E., Jurriaan M. de Vos, Alexandre Antonelli, and Homayoun C. Bagheri. “Evolution of Multicellularity Coincided with Increased Diversification of Cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 5 (January 29, 2013): 1791–96. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209927110; http://www.pnas.org/content/110/5/1791.
Sea Shepherd. The Shark Cull, 2016. https://youtu.be/U4ZqbE-ffiw.
Sedghi, Sarah. “Shark Culling May Be Contributing to Climate Change.” Text. ABC News, September 29, 2015. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-09-29/sharks-and-other-predators-help-prevent-climate-change/6813042.
Sethu, Harish. “The Fish We Kill to Feed the Fish We Eat.” Counting Animals. Accessed February 25, 2016. http://www.CountingAnimals.com/the-fish-we-kill-to-feed-the-fish-we-eat/.
Shark Savers. “Shark Fin Trade Myths and Truths: BYCATCH,” 2012. http://www.sharksavers.org/files/8613/3185/9956/Shark_Bycatch_FACT_SHEET_Shark_Savers.pdf.
Shepherd, C. J., and A. J. Jackson. “Global Fishmeal and Fish-Oil Supply: Inputs, Outputs and Markets.” Journal of Fish Biology 83, no. 4 (October 1, 2013): 1046–66. doi:10.1111/jfb.12224.
Shepherd, C.J., and A.J. Jackson. “Global Fishmeal and Fish-Oil Supply: Inputs, Outputs and Markets: Global Production of Fishmeal and Fish-Oil.” Journal of Fish Biology, September 2013, n/a – n/a. doi:10.1111/jfb.12224.
Shomura, R. S., and G. I. Murphy. “Longline Fishery for Deep-Swimming Tunas in the Central Pacific, 1953,” 1955.
Smith, Bren. “The Sustainable Seafood Myth.” Grist, August 1, 2011. http://grist.org/sustainable-food/2011-08-01-the-sustainable-seafood-myth/.
“Statistical Bulletin,” 2002.
Steele, J. H., and M. Schumacher. “Ecosystem Structure before Fishing.” Fish. Res. 44 (2000): 201–5. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(00)90003-1.
Steinfeld, Henning, Pierre Gerber, T. Wassenaar, V. Castel, Mauricio Rosales, and C. de Haan. “Livestock’s Long Shadow,” 2006. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.htm.
Steven Murawski, Richard Methot. “Biodiversity Loss in the Ocean: How Bad Is It?” Science 316, no. 5829 (2007). doi:10.1126/science.316.5829.1281b.
Stevens, J. D., R. Bonfil, N. K. Dulvy, and P. A. Walker. “The Effects of Fishing on Sharks, Rays, and Chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the Implications for Marine Ecosystems.” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57 (2000): 476–94. doi:10.1006/jmsc.2000.0724.
Stewart, Rob. Overfishing – Revolution World Issue. YouTube Video. Accessed March 1, 2016. http://revolutionv2.motionseason.com/open-your-eyes/overfishing/intro/.
Sumaila, U. Rashid, Ahmed S. Khan, Andrew J. Dyck, Reg Watson, Gordon Munro, Peter Tydemers, and Daniel Pauly. “A Bottom-up Re-Estimation of Global Fisheries Subsidies.” Journal of Bioeconomics 12, no. 3 (2010): 201–25. doi:10.1007/s10818-010-9091-8.
Tegner, M. J., and P. K. Dayton. “Ecosystem Effects of Fishing.” Trends Ecol. Evol. 14 (1999): 261–62. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01650-X.
The Animal Welcfare Institute. “Sharks At Risk,” n.d. http://www.awionline.org/pubs/online_pub/brochures/Shark_Brochure.pdf.
Tsikliras, Athanassios, and et al. “TRENDS IN TROPHIC LEVEL OF FARMED FISH IN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES.” Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit. 39 (2010).
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “Assesment and Methology for UN FAO Fish & Marine Life Stock Status.” Accessed February 26, 2016. http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2389e/i2389e02.pdf.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. FAO Yearbook.,” 2012. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3740t/index.html.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “FAO’s Report ‘Review of the State of World Marine Fisheries Resources’, Tables D1-D17,.” Accessed February 25, 2016. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/y5852e/Y5852E23.pd.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “General Situation of World Fish Stocks.” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/1000505/en/stocks.pdf.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012,” 2012. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e01.pdf.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014,” 2014. http://www.fao.org/3/d1eaa9a1-5a71-4e42-86c0-f2111f07de16/i3720e.pdf.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Fisheried and Aquaculture Department. “Discards and Bycatch in Shrimp Trawl Fisheries.” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W6602E/w6602E09.htm.
United Nations News Center. “Overfishing: A Threat to Marine Biodiversity.” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://www.un.org/events/tenstories/06/story.asp?storyid=800.
United States Department of Agriculture. “Agricultural Waste Management Field Handbook.” Accessed February 27, 2016. http://directives.sc.egov.usda.gov/viewerFS.aspx?hid=21430.
United States Department of Agriculture. “ARS Manure and Byproduct Utilization National Program (206).” Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/programs/programs.htm?np_code=206&docid=13337.
US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “What Is A Dead Zone?” Accessed February 28, 2016. http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/deadzone.html.
Vannuccini, Stefania, and for FAO, Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit. “OVERVIEW OF FISH PRODUCTION, UTILIZATION,CONSUMPTION AND TRADE,” 2003. http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.cca.ufsc.br/ContentPages/971360742.pdf.
Walter, Ismeni. The Last Fish: Our Exhausted Seas (English Dubbing of German Documentary “Der Letzte Fisch: Unsere Meere Am Scheideweg”), 2011. https://youtu.be/lQoVQRqQhlI with original German: https://youtu.be/_bzM_MSZNiE.
Watson, Paul. “If the Ocean Dies, We All Die!” Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www.seashepherd.org/commentary-and-editorials/2015/09/29/if-the-ocean-dies-we-all-die-741.
Watson, R., and D. Pauly. “Systematic Distortions in World Fisheries Catch Trends.” Nature 414 (2001): 534–36. doi:10.1038/35107050.
“World Summit on Sustainable Development: Plan of Implementation,” 2002.
World Wildlife Fund. “Impact of Habitat Loss on Species.” Accessed February 27, 2016. http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/species/problems/habitat_loss_degradation/.
Worm, B., H. K. Lotze, H. Hillebrand, and U. Sommer. “Consumer versus Resource Control of Species Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning.” Nature 417 (2002): 848–51. doi:10.1038/nature00830.
Worm, B., and R. A. Myers. “Meta-Analysis of Cod-Shrimp Interactions Reveals Top-down Control in Oceanic Food Webs.” Ecology 84 (2003): 162–73. http://www.fmap.ca/ramweb/papers-total/Worm_Myers_Ecology2003.pdf.
Worm, Boris, and et al. “Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services.” Science 314, no. 5800 (November 3, 2006): 787–90. doi:10.1126.
Worm, Boris. “Supporting Online Material: Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services.” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/suppl/2006/10/31/314.5800.787.DC1/1132294.Worm.SOM.pdf.
Worm, Boris, Ray Hilborn, Julia K. Baum, Trevor A. Branch, Jeremy S. Collie, Christopher Costello, Michael J. Fogarty, et al. “Rebuilding Global Fisheries.” Science 325, no. 5940 (July 31, 2009): 578–85. doi:10.1126/science.1173146.
Ye, Yimin, Kevern Cochrane, and for Fisheries and Resources Monitoring System. “Global Overview of Marine Fishery Resources.” Review of the State of World Marine Fishery Resources, 2011, 3. http://re.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/Review%20of%20the%20state%20of%20world %20marine%20fisheries.pdf#page=21.